Why do peope age in different ways? What factors determine the rate of aging?
Aging processes depend on the „aging program“ of the person, skin type, living environment and conditions – climate, sun, pollution, diet, exercising, rest and sleep regime, cosmetic products used. Alcohol and drug abuse, lack of rest and sleep also leave some marks on the face.

What is done during the facelift? What anesthesia is used? How long does this surgery last?
During the facelift procedure the skin of the lower part of the face and neck and underlying soft tissues are tightened. Surgery may be performed under general anesthesia or a local anesthetic may be used, the procedure usually lasts two hours.

How long is the postoperative recovery?
The patient is usually released from the clinic on the next day. A special bandage for the face has to be weared for 2 weeks after the facelift. Most patients get back to „normal“ within 2 weeks. Following surgery, the scars in front of the ear look reddish, but they can be hidden by your hair. In 6-12 months they will turn white and become barely visible.

What are potential complications? How frequent are they?
There is a possibility of complications but they are rare. Complications that can occur include bruising after surgery, especially when the blood pressure of the patient is high. Minor face asymmetry may be seen but it usually disappears within a few weeks.

Are the facelift results permanent? 
A facelift (rhytidectomy) cannot stop the aging process. What it can do is „set back the clock“ for 8-10 years, improving the most visible signs of aging. Your face will continue to age with time. The longevity of your facelift will depend on many factors: your lifestyle, skin elasticity, cosmetics etc. Clients usually choose to have another facelift after 10-15 years.

What is the best age to have the facelift? 
The facelift is performed when it is necessary to smooth out the appearance of sagging skin in the lower part of the face. Most patients are over 40-45 years of age.

Why do changes occur in the area around the eyes?
Aging and different factors (exposure to the sun, lifestyle, weight fluctuations, diseases etc.) may cause loss of skin elasticity, redistribution of fat deposits. Wrinkled folds of skin form on upper eyelids and puffy bags appear below the eyes, fine lines start to show… Eyes look sad and tired. It is difficult to hide these changes by any make-up including professional.

How can plastic surgery help? 
Aesthetic eyelid surgery, or blepharoplasty, may restore a youthful and refreshed appearance to your eyes. It is an operation to remove excess skin, fat or muscle from upper and lower eyelids. Blepharoplasty usually takes one to three hours, depending on the extent of the surgery, whether you do only upper or both upper and lower eyelids. Blepharoplasty is usually performed under local anesthesia which numbs the area to be treated. Incisions in the upper and lower eyelids are made following natural lines and creases, leaving no visible scars.

What are postoperative effects associated with blepharoplasty? Will it affect vision? How long is the recovery period?
Eyelid skin tends to swell and discolor after surgery. You will need to apply ice pads for the first 24-48 hours to help reduce swelling and bruising. Other postoperative effects may include excessive sensitivity to bright light. Wearing of dark glasses to protect the eyes from wind and sun irritation is suggested for a few weeks. A properly performed blepharoplasty will not affect the vision. Wounds usually heal within 3-5 days. Patients are generally allowed to wear make-up after they have their stitches removed. Most patients can usually be back to work in 7-10 days.

Are the results permanent? 
Eyelid surgery will make your eyes look 5-10 years younger. However, it does not stop the aging process so your eyes will continue to age over time. But the „winned“ years remain.

What causes wrinkles to develop on the face and neck? Which areas of the face are the most problematic?
Our skin on the face and neck ages with time. The effects of gravity (i.e. vertical position) cause eyelids to droop, face and neck skin to sag; atrophy of the subcutaneous cellular tissue „narrows“ the face; sleep wrinkles develop from sleeping with the face against a pillow; prolonged exposure to the sun can reduce elasticity of the skin; tension of the muscles of facial expression may cause expression wrinkles to appear. Effects of prolonged expression of emotions may show even on young people’s faces as „laugh“ or „anger“ wrinkles. Older people, besides these wrinkles, often have wrinkles around their lips and eyes.

How can plastic surgery correct the face skin?
Of course, plastic surgery (eyelid surgery, face lift and neck lift) can correct the skin of our face, but often much simpler surgical procedures can also do it very effectively such as laser skin renewal, fat injections or synthetic dermal fillers, botulinum toxin injections into muscles of facial expression.

Can all wrinkles be corrected with botulinum toxin injections or injectable wrinkle fillers?
Various wrinkle correction treatments are used for different wrinkle types. Botulinum toxin can help remove expression wrinkles on the forehead and around the eyes by reducing the tonicity of the muscles of facial expression. Wrinkle fillers or fat injections are effective on other wrinkles, including nasal-labial folds that are caused by gravity or degradation of subcutaneous fats.

Can conservative measures correct all wrinkles?
Conservative wrinkle correction will be beneficial only for younger patients who do not need plastic surgery yet. Older patients will also benefit from botulinum toxin, wrinkle fillers or fat injections if they had already surgery done and now they need only minor additional wrinkle correction.

How are botulinum toxin injections performed?
Botulinum toxin injection is intervention into the human body so this treatment should be performed in a medical office. The face is thoroughly cleaned, then botulinum toxin is injected into specific points with a very thin needle.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of botulinum toxin injections?
The biggest advantage is the simplicity of the procedure (it will only take 10-15 min.). The effect will become visible after 2-4 days. Disadvantages include cost and temporary results lasting for about 4-6 months. The results are cumulative; repeated treatments tend to lead to longer-lasting effects. Two or three sessions are usually necessary in order to get the effect that you want. This treatment varies in cost depending on the number of wrinkles treated and the quantity of botulinum toxin used.

What are the possible side effects? 
The main danger associated with botulinum toxin injections is overdosing. If the patient receives an overdose of botulinum toxin, for example, in the forehead, it can result in poor lymphatic circulation, unnaturally swollen forehead, drooping upper eyelids and eyebrows. In general, excessive and repeated doses of botulinum toxin may produce toxicity.

What patients are not good candidates for botulinum toxin injections? When should they be not recommended?
Botulinum toxin injections are recommended when it is necessary to smooth out facial expression wrinkles. Most patients are over 30-35 years of age. Administration of botulinum toxin is forbidden during pregnancy. This procedure should be performed on healthy patients provided they have no fever.

What do wrinkle fillers treat?
Some wrinkles (e.g. nasolabial folds) are caused by skin and soft tissue descent, not by spasms of facial expression muscles. Such wrinkles are commonly corrected with injectable wrinkle fillers – preparations of animal origin or synthetic materials, short- or long-lasting. The most popular among them are wrinkle fillers based on hyaluronic acid that promotes collagen synthesis in the body. Fat injections can also be used as fillers: the doctor then injects the patient’s own fat into the targeted areas. Fat injection into superficial or deep subcutaneous layers of the face is a novelty in today’s plastic surgery. Injectable wrinkle fillers give for treaded areas a plumper, smoother appearance and the face looks younger, like 5-10 years before. Cosmetic fillers are not only used to fill in fine lines and wrinkles, but also to reshape and give volume to some parts of the face such as lips, chin, cheeks.

How long do wrinkle fillers last?
Durability of wrinkle fillers differs much: some of them last 6-8 months while other filler injections may last up to 1-2 years or more. Although fillers do not stop the aging process or provide permanent correction, they can temporarily reverse the signs of aging.